УДК 621.9

ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ ОБРАБОТКИ СЛОЖНЫХ ПОВЕРХНОСТЕЙ ДЕТАЛЕЙ НА ОСНОВЕ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ ИНФОРМАЦИООНО-СПРАВОЧНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ РЕЖУЩЕГО ИНСТРУМЕНТА

Чемборисов Н.А.1, Савин И.А.2
1Миасский филиал ФГБО ВПО «Южно-Уральский государственный национальный исследовательский университет», д-р техн. наук, профессор,декан
2ФГБОУ ВПО «Казанский национальный исследовательский технический университет им. А. Н. Туполева - КАИ», к.т.н. доцент, заведующий кафедрой

Аннотация
Изделия с винтовыми поверхностями (ВП) получили широкое распространение в автомобилестроении, станкостроении, инструментальном производстве и медицине. Обработка этих изделий выполняется режущими инструментами (РИ) со сложной формой образующей исходной инструментальной поверхности (ИИП). Переход от массового производства к мелкосерийному производству требуют гибкого реагирования на изменение потребительского спроса, интенсификации технологической подготовки производства, максимального использования стандартного и ранее спроектированного специального РИ. Эту задачу можно решить за счет
автоматизации выбора РИ. Для этого необходимы технологические критерии идентификации РИ, самым основным из них является профиль образующей ИИП инструмента.

Ключевые слова: винтовая канавка, концевой инструмент, САПР


INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF PROCESSING OF DIFFICULT SURFACES OF DETAILS ON THE BASIS OF USE OF DIRECTORY SYSTEM OF THE CUTTING TOOL

Chemborisov Nail Anvarovich1, Savin Igor Alekseevich2
1Southern Ural State National Research University, Miass branch, Dr.Sci.Tech., professor
2Kazan State Technical University named after A.N.Tupolev, PhD technical sciences, associate professor, Head of Department, Department of Engineering and technology engineering industries

Abstract
Products with the screw surfaces (SS) received broad distribution in automotive industry, machine-tool construction, tool production and medicine. Processing of these products is carried out by the cutting tools (CT) with a difficult form of the forming initial tool surface (ITS). Transition from mass production to small-scale production demand flexible response to change of a consumer demand, an intensification of technological preparation of production, the maximum use of standard and earlier designed special RI. This problem can be solved due to automation of a choice of RI. Technological criteria of identification of RI are for this purpose necessary, the main of them the profile of forming IIP of the tool is most.

Keywords: OpenCASCADE, SAPR, screw flute, trailer tool


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Чемборисов Н.А., Савин И.А. Increase of efficiency of processing of difficult surfaces of details on the basis of use of directory system of the cutting tool // Современная техника и технологии. 2014. № 11 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2014/11/4799 (дата обращения: 01.10.2017).

For processing of VP of details Borisov A.N. works are devoted to questions of design of RI. [1], Grechishnikova V.A. [2,3] etc.
In them much attention is paid to concrete designs of RI and technology of their production, but the attention to design of RI for processing of such VP as conic, and spherical which are the most difficult from the point of view of formation of a surface of RI [8, 9, 10] is insufficiently paid. Two options of this surface are known: with constant value of a tilt angle of the screw line and variable value of screw parameter; and vice versa, to constants and variables. 
For the second option the directing screw line is described by system of the equations:
 (1)
Simplification of system (1) gives system of the equations for the description of cylindrical VP which is a special case conic and is set by the following parameters: angle of lead of the screw line; screw parameter, the form forming. 
Compound forming kanal VP it is possible to describe three systems of the equations in local systems of coordinates which in the generalized form assume the following air:
 (2)
the corners defining the provision of each point of the compound forming detail VP I am glad; radiuses of circles of the compound forming.
The system of the equations of kanal VP has an appearance:
 (3)
distance between system of coordinates of the forming VP of a detail and system of coordinates of the detail, an angle of rotation forming at its screw movement.
The solution of a problem of definition of a profile of the forming IIP consists of stages:
circular projection of VP on the RI axial plane; definition of VP which is bending around families of circular projections.
Circular projection of VP on the RI axial plane is carried out on dependences:
 (4)
The received system of the equations allows to construct circular projections of VP to the RI axial plane without carrying out sections of a detail. For definition of a profile of the forming IIP it is necessary to find bending around to the received family of curves. 
For check of possibility of receiving by the designed RI of the VP full profile, it is necessary to simulate process of form-building operation: to determine the received detail profile by the RI profile taking into account, the errors brought by components of technological system and to compare it with set on the drawing of a product.
The way of a shaping of VP on the basis of systematization of its signs is considered as set of conditions of installation of preparation and RI; a certain combination of the movements of a shaping which are kinematic coordinated among themselves which are carried out by preparation and RI, adjustments of components by technological system.
Systematization of signs of a way of a shaping allows to reveal logical communication of the received VP with parameters of the unit of preparation and RI, the movements of a shaping and type of RI. Change of any sign conducts to change of the formed surface.
As a result of creation of logical model influence of components of technological system on formation of parameters of the unit of RI concerning preparation is revealed. The revealed errors are used for the analysis of various options of modeling of processing of VP, depending on limit values of parameters of the unit of RI concerning preparation. 
When modeling processing all options of parameters of the unit of RI concerning preparation are considered. In various cases their quantity can change.
The surface of a detail is defined as bending around consecutive provisions IIP at its relative screw movement. The equation of IIP of rotation has an appearance:
 (5)
- rotation IIP radius for the current considered starting point forming 
 - angle of rotation the radius vector of the considered point of the forming IIP.
Coordinates of screw projections of the IIP circular lines will assume an air:
 (6)
As a result of screw projection in the initial plane of a detail the family of screw projections in an analytical look turns out, bending around to which is a detail profile in its initial plane.
Having received all boundary profiles from all possible options of parameters of the unit of RI of the components of technological system caused by errors, comparison with the set profile on the drawing is carried out. As a result of comparison deviations are determined by a normal from set, maximum from which shouldn’t exceed the admission on depth of the set profile.
For identification of the RI profile by its automated search from ISS RI the problem of comparison of profiles is solved. 
At the first stage the point of the calculated profile which is the next to the considered point of the set profile is defined. That, at which size will be the next point  will be minimum. Further the center is defined  and radius  the circle passing through the chosen point  and two next 
After receiving the equation of a normal search of a point of intersection of a normal with the calculated profile is carried out. 
Distance on a normal from i points of the set profile to the corresponding point of the calculated profile, it is calculated as piece length between i oh a point and a point of intersection of a normal with the calculated profile
. (7)
At the second stage check is carried out   - the admission on depth of the set detail profile.
The directory system of RI has to contain the data allowing to carry out search and a choice of RI taking into account the parameters of accuracy, rigidity and vibrostability, and also essential, from the point of view of the user of ISS RI, parameters of the cutting part of the tool.
The integrated algorithm of operation of the information retrieval system (IRS) of RI is given in fig. 1 by which component ISS RI is. 
Results of theoretical researches are checked on the example of the automated search of mills of processing of VP of cylindrical and conic trailer mills for what basic data are entered.


Fig. 1. The integrated algorithm of operation of the information retrieval system of the cutting tool

When all basic data in the form of the file are entered into the program module, process of search by results of which information on the found mill – the link to its location in ISS RI and the sketch is output is carried out. At computer modeling the planes of axial section (fig. 2 are received mill model in an isometry (fig. 2 and). б) and family of curves with bending around (fig. 2 в) 
The pilot batch of conic trailer mills with screw shaving is made flute.

. 
а)                                                                               б)                                                                                  в)

Fig. 2

Results of measurements showed that the disk mill chosen by means of the INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM as RI processes screw shaving a flute in the set limits.


References
  1. Бо­ри­сов А.Н. Геометрическая теория автоматизированного проектирования металлорежущих инструментов: Автореферат дис. докт. техн. наук, Тула, 1993
  2. Гре­чиш­ни­ков В.А. По­вы­ше­ние эф­фек­тив­но­сти про­ек­ти­ро­ва­ния и экс­плуа­та­ции ин­ст­ру­мен­та для ме­ха­но­об­ра­бот­ки на ос­но­ве сис­тем­но­го мо­де­ли­ро­ва­ния. Дис. докт. техн. наук,  М.:  Мос­стан­кин, 1989
  3. Гречишников В.А., Юнусов Ф.С., Чемборисов Н.А. Формирование информационно-поисковой системы инструментального обеспечения автоматизированного производства и проектирование САПР РИ. М.: Машиностроение, 2000, 223 с.


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