УДК 629.113

РЕГУЛИРОВКА ГОЛОВНЫХ ФАР АВТОМОБИЛЯ УРАЛ-4320-31

Гумелёв Василий Юрьевич1, Пархоменко Александр Викторович2, Постников Александр Александрович3
1Рязанское высшее воздушно-десантное командное училище имени генерала армии В.Ф. Маргелова, канд. техн. наук
2Рязанское высшее воздушно-десантное командное училище имени генерала армии В.Ф. Маргелова, доцент
3Рязанское высшее воздушно-десантное командное училище имени генерала армии В.Ф. Маргелова, адъюнкт

Аннотация
В статье рассмотрена методика проверки головных фар основного армейского автомобиля Урал-4320-31 и порядок их регулировки. Правильное выполнение данных операций при эксплуатации автомобилей позволит повысить безопасности дорожного движения.

Ключевые слова: ближний свет фар, головные фары, дальний свет фар, плавкий предохранитель, проверка и регулировка, разметка, экран


ADJUSTMENT THE HEAD LAMPS OF THE VEHICLE URAL-4320-31

Gumelev Vasiliy Yuryevich1, Parhomenko Alexander Viktorovich2, Postnikov Aleksander Aleksandrovich3
1Ryazan high airborne command school name of the General of the army V. Margelov, candidate of technical Sciences
2Ryazan high airborne command school name of the General of the army V. Margelov, associate professor
3Ryazan high airborne command school name of the General of the army V. Margelov, adjunct

Abstract
In the article the method of inspection headlamps main army vehicle Ural-4320-31 and the manner of their adjustment. Correct execution of these operations during the operation of cars will improve road safety.

Keywords: check and adjust, fuse, head lamps, high beam headlight, layout, low beam headlight, screen


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Гумелёв В.Ю., Пархоменко А.В., Постников А.А. Adjustment the head lamps of the vehicle URAL-4320-31 // Современная техника и технологии. 2016. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2016/03/9797 (дата обращения: 28.05.2017).

You are currently constantly and steadily increasing the number of cars on the roads of the country the issues of road safety are becoming one of the main problems of national importance. Multiple studies, which aim to improve road safety, including while driving in the dark or in conditions of poor visibility. One of the main issues urgent requires immediate solution is to organize technically correct operation of cars, including, and most likely in the first place, devices and equipment systems lighting and light-signalling devices.

Car Ural-4320-31 is one of the major army vehicles. Unfortunately, in some fairly solid and widely available publications, including on the Internet, the headlights of this car are extremely outlined, to put it mildly, confusedly (for example, a simple typo may take one and a half pages). The purpose of this article is to summarize and to remind those who study and practically operated by the cars Ural-4320-31 in the national economy or in the military is simple, but very important issues associated with verification and adjustment of the headlights of the auto-mobile.

Check and adjust if necessary headlamps lighting is performed at maintenance No. 2 (occurs every 16000 km of run), after replacing the lamp or of the optical element of a headlamp, and a breakage OPE-rhenium car in places of fastening of headlights.

Properly adjusted headlamps must ensure the far light of the good visibility of the road and roadsides  at a minimum distance of 100 m, and when you switch to low beam the passing places and good visibility at a distance of not less than 30 m.

This requirement is satisfied in the case where the optical axis of the vehicle emanating from the centers of the lenses of the optical elements is directed in parallel and will intersect with the canvas flat stretch of road at a distance of 75 m from the vehicle [1].

The article will be considered a simple and easily available methods of checking and adjustment of headlamps on the screen with deliberately inflicted on it by the markup, without using any instruments and devices.

In the field as a screen to adjust the headlights if necessary, use a building wall, concrete fence slabs or any other structure to which a flat area. The display layout is applied with chalk or paint.

Check and adjust if necessary headlamps lighting 401.3711 optical elements with the European distribution (with standard optical elements) is as follows.

The vehicle without a load must be installed on a flat, horizontal surface (height of irregularities up to 5 mm) with a deviation from plane of not more than 5 mm per 1 m. Adjustment must be carried out in the dark. The ambient air temperature during operation should be from plus 10 to plus 30 °C.

In front of the car needs to be installed portable or stationary vertical screen (figure 1) with a flat, matte surface with a minimum width of 2.5 m.

H – the height from the floor to the center of the optical elements of the headlights; L is the distance from the axis of the car to the center of the optical element lights; h – the amount of displacement of the light spot on the screen: h=230 mm (for cars Ural-4320-10, Ural-4320-31) and h=190mm (for cars Ural-43202-10, Ural-43202-31); MM, NN – a vertical axis of symmetry of the optical elements of the headlights; ОО – projection of the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the vehicle on the screen; OLEV and OПР – centers of light spots of the headlights 

Figure 1 – – The layout of the screen for dimming headlampslighting 401.3711  with optical elements with the European distribution

The Screen should be perpendicular to the plane of site (deviation from perpendicularity not more than 5 mm per 1 m length of the screen).

Line ББ (figure 1) is applied to the height H of the centers of the optical elements of the headlights, and the line AA is applied at the height of the centers of light spots of the headlights. Vertical lines MM and NN are applied to the screen so that they lie in the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the optical elements of the left and right headlamps, respectively. The centers of light spots of the headlights OLEV and OПР are at the intersection of line AA with lines MM and NN. The middle line of the screen ОО is the projection of the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the vehicle. L – distance from the longitudinal plane of the car to the centres of the optical elements of the headlights. Average OO shedding of the screen must coincide with the axial line of the floor of the room (location) OП. The horizontal line OП is a continuation of the vertical line of the toe and is perpendicular to the plane of a portable or stationary screen (wall).

The fixed layout of the screen can be applied on interior or exterior wall of the building. The headlight adjustment is made only on fully fueled and equipped with all the utensils and tools (equipped) car.

The wheels should be inflated to the pressure corresponding to full load in accordance with table 1.

Table 1 – Nominal air pressure in the tires of the car Ural-4320-31

Tires

Nominal air pressure in the tires, kgf/cm2

Front truck

Rear truck

14.00-20, 146G, 147G (НС14/PR14) model ОИ-25

3,2

4,3

390/95R20, 147J (HC10/PR10) KAMA-URAL

2,9

3,2

390R20, 149J (HC14/PR14) model О-65

3,5

3,9

Lights 401.3711 with the European system of light distribution (optical element ФГ140) are regulated only in a mode of dipped headlights. They should give control on the screen the bright area at the bottom and dark at the top in figure 1 [2, 3, 4].

Adjustment of headlights of head illumination is performed in the following order. You need to install the car in front of a vertical screen at a distance L=7.5±0.3 m from the center of the headlamp lenses. The longitudinal plane of symmetry of the vehicle must be perpendicular to the plane of the screen, and the line of intersection with the plane of the screen must coincide with the median vertical line ОО on the screen.

To the dipped headlight. To remove the decorative rims of both headlights and close a lamp blackout cover. You can not use the cover, and simply turn to remove the appropriate fuse-link (fuse) from the fuse block in accordance with figure 2. But these same fuses can be installed in the upper unit.

а                                                                            b

a – the fuse box without a fuse right low beam headlight; b – fuse box without fuse low beam left headlight;

1 – lower fuse block; 2 – upper block of fuses; 3 – contacts for inserting a fuse, right low beam lights; 4 – contacts to insert fuse low beam left headlight

Figure 2 – Installation of fuse low beam headlights

Headlights should be adjusted alternately. First adjust the left headlight. By turning the top and side adjusting screws (figure 3), vertical and horizontal adjustments, respectively set the optical element so that the horizontal cut-off line coincides with the line AA, and inclined at an angle of 15° line of the cut-off came from the point of intersection of line AA with the vertical line MM or NN for the corresponding headlight (OLEV and OПР).             

a                                                                                b

a – setting the vertical tilt of the headlight; b – horizontal direction of the light beam headlights

Figure 3 – Adjusting the headlights

After reaching the required location the light beam left headlight produces the same operations on adjustment of the right headlight. Once the adjustment is complete to wear decorative headbands and fix them, without shifting of the light spot on the screen.

There is a fairly simple way to check the correctness of adjustment of headlights. You’ll need to turn your high beams. Light stains of headlights on the screen should be equal circles, their centers must be at the same level, but shifted to the left and up against the centers of light spots beam.

Checking and adjusting headlights 401.3711 with the optical element with the American system of light distribution. On both head lights 401.3711 can be installed instead of the standard optical elements ФГ140 with the European system of light distribution of the optical elements with the American system of light distribution, for example, ФГ122 or ФГ105.

Install on car headlights with different light distribution systems is not allowed.

Check and adjust if necessary headlamps light with optical elements of the American system of light distribution is carried out on high beam all the time. The preparation of the car to check adjustment of headlights, the requirements for Playground installation in front of a screen similar to the requirements to test lamps with a European distribution.

Vertical screen to adjust the headlights with the US distribution has a different, than earlier considered, the markup. Its layout is presented in figure 4.

Figure 4 – Layout of the screen to adjust the headlights with American distribution

Line ОО is in a longitudinal plane of symmetry of the checked vehicle and is held at right angles to the line OA. Line ЛЛ, and ПП parallel to the line OO. The distance a is equal to the half size between the centers of the lenses of the headlights (765 mm). At the height h, mm, from the ground is applied the horizontal line ДД. The height h is determined by the formula:

h = H∙(1 – 0,014∙L)

where H is the center height of the headlamp lenses on a platform, mm;

L is the distance from the centers of the lenses of the headlights to the plane of the screen, m.

Due to different quantities of deformation of the suspension parts size H should be determined by direct measurement, as it can vary within wide limits cars one modification [3]. The distance L is selected in the range from 5 to 10 meters (at that distance on the screen of the light spot headlight has a clear not fuzzy boundaries). The optimal distance is 7.5 m [5]. Then h = 0.9∙H, mm. the Centers of light spots of the headlights must lie on the intersection of the lines ЛЛ and ДД – for the left headlight and the lines ПП and ДД is for the right headlight. If this requirement is not met, the headlight you want to adjust. The adjustments are done in the same order as the adjustment of the headlights with the European distribution, but, in contrast, as noted earlier, the far light. To check up correctness of adjustment of headlights can be quite simple. If after adjusting the headlights to turn on the low beam, the light spot headlight, the screen should be equal circles with a much greater illumination of the lower semicircle. Their centers should be at the same level, but to shift down to 300-320 mm from the horizontal line ДД and the right with respect to the centers of light spots of the main beam headlamps [1].

The authors also published a number of publications on the lighting system of the vehicle Ural-4320-31 [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 ].

The authors hope that these publications will provide all possible assistance to the people, as learners, and are constantly operating the vehicle Ural-4320-31.


References
  1. Blackout of automotive vehicles. Manual [Text]: the Ministry of Defence. Most importantly car control. – M.: Military publishing house, 1989. – 76 p.
  2. Manual operation of the car “Motovoz-1″ [Text] – Ryazan: Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation. The main Directorate, 2006. – 284 p.
  3. Cars Ural-4320-10, Ural-4320-31 and their modifications. Manual 4320-3902035 RE [Text]: Miass : OJSC “UralAZ”. 2003. – 219 p.
  4. Timofeev, Yu. L. Electrical equipment of automobiles: elimination and failure prevention [Text] / Yu. L. Timofeev, G. L. Timofeev, N. M. Ilyin. – M. : Transport, 1994. – 301 p.
  5. Danov, B. A. Electrical equipment of military vehicles [Text] / B. A. Danov, D. V. Rogachev, N. P. Shevchenko, Ryazan Military automotive Institute, 2005. – 598 p.
  6. Gumelev V. Yu. The Installation of the optical element with the American system of light distribution in headlight 401.3771 (ФГ122ВВ1) car URAL-4320-31 / /Modern equipment and technologies. – February, 2013 . URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2013/02/1625 (date of access: 11.09.2015).
  7. Gumelev V. Yu., Parhomenko A. V. Searchlight car URAL-4320-31 //Modern equipment and technologies. – No. 8 August 2013 . URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2013/08/2143 (date of access: 11.09.2015)
  8. Gumelev V. Yu., Car fog lamp URAL-4320-31 // Modern equipment and technologies. -October 2013. – No. 10 . URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2013/10/2192 (date of access: 11.09.2015).
  9. Gumelev V. Yu. Parhomenko A.V. Structure of the lighting system of the vehicle
    Ural-4320-31 // Modern equipment and technologies. – No. 9 September 2013 . URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2013/09/2169 (date of access:data obrashcheniya: 11.09.2015).
  10. Gumelev V. Yu,  Parhomenko A.V. Device for blackout drive lamps of a vehicle: lantern podgotovkoy // Modern technics and technologies. -March 2014. – No. 3 . URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2014/03/3176 (date of access: 25.02.2015).
  11. Gumelev V. Yu. Optimization Troubleshooting electrical equipment vehicle//Studies in the natural Sciences. -April, 2014. – No. 4 . URL: http://science.snauka.ru/2014/04/6722 (date of access: 14.04.2014).
  12. Gumelev V. Yu., Parhomenko A.V., Volkov Yu. I. Detailed description of the device head lights car lighting //Modern technics and technologies. -July 2014. – No. 7 . URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2014/07/3606 (date of access: 26.05.2015)
  13. Gumelev V. Yu., Parhomenko A.V., Postnikov A. A. A Brief description of the principle of operation of the headlamps of the truck // Modern technics and technologies. 2015. No. 1 . URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2015/01/5221 (date of access: 07.01.2015).
  14. Kartukov, A. G. Automotive incandescent lamps [Text] / A. G. Kartukov, V. Yu. Gumelev // Truck application. – 2013. – No. 7. P. 18-21


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