UDC 004.9


Musina Alsu Kamilevna
Naberezhnye Chelny branch of the Kazan National Research Technical University. A.N. Tupolev
4 th year student

Keywords: nanotechnology, science, technology

Article reference:
Musina A.K. Development of science and nanotechnology // Modern technics and technologies. 2017. № 9 [Electronic journal]. URL: https://technology.snauka.ru/en/2017/09/13750

View this article in Russian

Strong development of science, technology and technology allowed go to the practical development of the nanometer range of the sizes of objects of human activity. There was a new science – nanotechnology, so much attention was paid to the problems that arise when creating and exploring nanoscale (having microscopic dimensions) structures in various fields of science and technology.

With the development of nanotechnology, it is necessary to know in more detail the range of dimensions of elements. In the future, realizable technologies will be developed that allow us to operate with individual atoms or molecules. These technologies can realize the principles of atomic and molecular assembly on an industrial scale.

With this discovery, a number of technical and fundamental problems occur simultaneously. The uniqueness of these problems is due to the fact that two different scientific areas are the subject of nanoscience: chemical and microtechnology, which is based mainly on the achievement of submicron technology. These areas have their own ideas about priorities, well-established terminology and methods of work.

From a physical point of view, this is, firstly, the problem of creating functioning element with nanometer dimensions, secondly, ensuring its connection with other similar elements, thirdly, the question of creating group processing methods that make it possible to obtain the required structure at least once on the entire surface of the substrate or a sufficiently large local area of ​​it.

The next stage looks at the problems of transition to multi-level schemes, in the long term – to and related to this complex problems of 3D switching and heat removal.

From the chemical point of view, it is a complex of problems related to the preparation and study of ultradispersed and nanoparticles, dimensional effects in nanochemistry, multiphase complexes within one nanoparticle, the creation of nanoreactors and nanocontainers, and much more. Of particular interest are “materials with the intellect, “who have the ability to respond to changes in their physical characteristics to external influences. Their characteristic feature is the presence of two phase transformations. In nanochemistry, two strategic directions are also seen. The first is related to the study of the chemical properties and reactivity of nanoparticles as a function of their size and the number of atoms that form them. The second deals with more practical things – using nanochemistry to produce and modify individual nanoparticles, realizing the principles of self-organization to build from these nanoparticles more complex designs of micro- and macrocosm and studying the properties of the micro- and macroobjects obtained as a function of the properties of the nanoparticles that form them.

The transition to nanometer dimensions and the need for practical mastering of technologies that operate with individual atoms and molecules, also means the need to revise some views in connection with the new data obtained, because the accumulated experimental material reached a volume that provokes the transition of quantity to quality. There was a real possibility of creating in the future “intellectual materials” capable of self-diagnostics of various defects and their elimination, the implementation of sensory and executive functions in the process of work. By level of intra-structural organization and complexity of such materials will approach the protein structures.

The development of nanotechnology will allow constructing and fundamentally new elements, such as “one-electron” devices, consuming extremely small energy for switching, or ultrafast bipolar transistors with bases several nanometers thick. Devices based on nanostructures are also essential for reading information in the computational process because of extremely low signal levels. An example is magnetic reading devices based on the effect of giant magnetoresistance arising in layered metallic magnetically ordered media with thickness layers in a few nanometers. Laser diodes for communication lines are a product of nanotechnology, since they are quantum-dimensional nanoheterostructures with a characteristic layer thickness of several nanometers.

Effective photodetector devices are also based on such semiconductor  heterostructures. Further development of radiating and photoreceiving devices is associated with the development of nanotechnology. We can expect the appearance of devices of a fundamentally new type, using quantum mechanical regularities.   The transition to a nanoscale will significantly improve the characteristics of microwave transistors and create devices based on quantum mechanical effects. Semiconductor lasers of medium and high power, made on the basis of nanostructures, are effective for use in projection systems of various purposes (including projection television). Nanostructured materials are extremely promising when creating efficient cathodes for plasma panels of any area.

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